!The Meaning and Origin of Weekdays
The Romans substituted their equivalent gods for the Greek gods, Mars, Mercury, Jove (Jupiter), Venus, and Saturn. (The two pantheons are very similar.) In the Germanic languages, these names were translated, all names of planets named after Roman gods received names after Germanic gods. Saturn was not substituted.
There is no record of the 7-day week cycle ever having been broken. Calendar changes and reform have never interrupted the 7-day cycles. It very likely that the week cycles have run uninterrupted at least since the days of Moses (c. 1400 B.C.E.), possibly even longer.
Some sources claim that the ancient Jews used a calendar in which an extra Sabbath was occasionally introduced. But this is probably not true.
Monday - Day of the Moon
Represents the Moon
It is day of moon goddess, Selene, Luna and Mani.
Derived from Lunae Dies, day of the moon, the name reflects the ancient observance of feast days dedicated to moon goddess or planet.
The metal silver, dedicated to the moon, is associated with Monday.
Tuesday - Tiu’s Day
Represents the planet Mars
In the Roman calendar the corresponding day was dies Martis, the day of Mars, associated with Ares. Tiw's day is derived from Tyr or Tir, the god of honorable war.
The metal iron, dedicated to Mars and interpreted as his spear and shield is associated with Tuesday.
Wednesday - Woden's day
Represents the planet Mercury
The name derives from the Scandinavian Woden (Odin), chief god of Norse mythology, who was often called the All Father.
Quicksilver, a liquid mercury that contains amounts of the platinum group metals, has been interpreted as the caduceus of the Greek Hermes (Mercury in Roman myth), and is therefore an attribute of Wednesday
Thursday - Thor's day
Represents the planet Jupiter
Named after Thor, the god of strength and thunder, defender and help in war, son of Odin, is the counterpart of Jupiter or Jove. Thor is one of the twelve great gods of northern mythology. He is the only god who cannot cross from earth to heaven upon the rainbow, for he is so heavy and powerful that the gods fear it will break under his weight.
The metal tin is associated with the thunderbolt of Jupiter (Zeus in Greek myth), is the metal for Thursday.
Friday - Freya's day
Represents the plant of love Venus
Derived from the Germanic Frigga the name of the Norse god Odin's wife. Frigga is considered to be the mother of all, and the goddess who presides over marriage. The name means loving or beloved.
The metal copper, dedicated to Venus, is associated with Friday.
Saturday - Saturn's day
Represents the planet Saturn
Corresponding to the Roman Saturni, or day of Saturn, the Roman god of agriculture.
Saturday is also represented by Loki, the Norse god of tricks and chaos.
The metal lead is associated with the scythe of Saturn.
Sunday – Day of the Sun
Sunday celebrates the sun god, Ra, Helios, Apollo, Ogmios, Mithrias, the sun goddess, Phoebe.
The metal gold, as dedicated in the symbols of alchemy, is associated with the sun god and Sunday.